Common Core Basics

CHAPTER 8

Most of us have ancestors who came to the United States from somewhere else. One reason people move to different countries or regions is to get away from poor physical conditions such as drought, lack of farmland, or weather that is too hot or too cold.

Geography is the study of Earth and its features. Geographers study natural features of our world, such as climate, soil, mountains, and waterways. They also study how human populations use Earth. Recognizing differences in geography can help you understand how people adapt to the land where they live and how they change tho land. Maps are one of the tools geographers use to represent information about natural features and human populations. As you read, consider how humans have interacted with the world and changed it.

In this chapter you will study these topics:

  • arrow_drop_downPhysical and Cultural Landscapes

    Throughout history, the features of the landscape have influenced how people use land for settlements, farming, fishing, and other purposes. As the world's population density increases and new technologies are developed, people are changing the environment more and more.

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  • arrow_drop_downPhysical Systems

    The physical systems of Earth include natural resources such as land, water, plants, animals, and minerals. Earth has seven continents, five oceans, and thousands of ecosystems. Each of these ecosystems is affected by global warming.

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  • arrow_drop_downHuman Systems

    Demography is the study of people on the planet. Social scientists collect information about population growth, death rates, and birthrates. They also study migration, urban growth, and the mixing of cultures.

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  • arrow_drop_downNationhood and Statehood

    The world is not naturally divided into nations or states. Changing borders reflect the conflicts and the cooperation that have occurred between groups of people throughout history.

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  • arrow_drop_downSustainability

    Increasing population and economic development place a huge strain on Earth's natural resources. The burning of fossil fuels sends carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. This adds to the greenhouse effect and increases global warming. People and governments are investigation ways of dealing with these problems through sustainable development.

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  • arrow_drop_downNatural and Cultural Diversity

    Just as Earth has many landforms, climates, and ecosystems, it is also home to a wide variety of human cultures. Within a culture, the people share certain traits, such as language, values, and behaviors.

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