Materials

  • CCB Mathematics pages 218 - 223

Standards

Objectives

  • Define productivity as an economic concept

  • Explain economic interdependence

  • Describe the relationship between productivity and interdependence

Key Concept

  • Productivity and interdependence are fundamental economic concepts. Both productivity and interdependence have a direct effect on the US economy and on the economies of countries around the world.

Vocabulary

Tier 2 efficiently
input
output
Tier 3 division of labor
interdependence
productivity
specialization
Test Words interpret

Evidence-Based Reading

  • Collaborative Reading: Provide a copy of the boxed text on page 219 for students to read collaboratively. Direct the first student to read the first sentence aloud, the second student to read the second sentence aloud, and so on. Monitor students and supply pronunciation help as needed.

Research It

  • Follow Production: After students complete the exercise, invite volunteers to present their findings to the class, pointing out the various locations in which materials and labor went into the production of the product they chose.

Writing Practice

  • Remind students that division of labor and specialization are related but are not exactly the same thing. Division of labor refers to the work being divided while specialization refers to workers focusing on one or a few things. Point out that, depending on the subject of their paragraph, workers may specialize in more than one task.

Before Lesson

Students have learned the basics of economics, including how the profit incentive and the market structures of monopoly and competition operate. Ask students if they know what productivity and interdependence are. (Sample answers: being productive, making products; being dependent on other people) Tell students that productivity and interdependence play roles in today’s economy. Productivity affects profit and interdependence describes the economic interaction among businesses worldwide. Explain that students will learn more about productivity and interdependence in this lesson.

Background

Ask students what it means to be productive, or to get things done. Then explain to them that productivity is simply a measure of how efficiently or well things get done. Next, challenge students to name a domestic chore or a work task that goes more quickly when many people help. Point out that people who are cooperating to get something done are interdependent; they rely on each other. Point out how relying on each other (interdependence) leads to efficiency (productivity).

Guided Practice

  • Production and Products
  • Interdependence in Economics
  • Productivity and Interdependence

Core Skill

Interpret Words and Phrases in Text: Pair students to complete the exercise. When they are finished, invite volunteers from the pairs to share with the class the unfamiliar words they chose and explain how they applied the three techniques (definition, context, and substitution).

Interpret Meaning: Tell students that a word’s etymology refers to the origin of the word. Looking up a word’s etymology is similar to interpreting the parts of a word. Explain that, oftentimes, using the word in question as a key word along with etymology in an Internet search will help students quickly identify a word’s parts and interpret a word’s meaning. Once students finish defining the four words, invite volunteers to write four sentences on the board, with each sentence using one of the four terms.

Extension

Translate Terms: Review the vocabulary words with students. For each word, assist students in translating it into their first languages. Once they are comfortable with the words, have pairs of students work together to make word flash cards with the English word on the front and the translated word on the back.

Investigate Interdependence: Ask students to assess the interdependence involved in the manufacture of a product such as a smartphone, a motorcycle, or a microwave oven. Tell them to go online and investigate the economic interdependence represented in its manufacturing process by categorizing the product’s parts and labor (e.g., made from raw materials from Korea and the US, designed and machined in the US, assembled in Mexico). Invite students to share what they learn in brief oral presentations. Have class members offer critiques that students can use to revise their reports.

Lesson Review