• CCB Social Studies pages 78 - 85



  • Understand the causes and effects of the American Revolution

  • Understand how and why the Constitution was developed

  • Recognize how the new nation grew geographically and economically

Key Concept

  • After defeating the British, the new United States established a democratic government. As the nation grew, conflict between regions increased.


Tier 2 annex
Tier 3 constitution
Test Words cause

Evidence-Based Reading

  • Collaborative Reading: Read Creating the Constitution aloud to students while they follow along in the book. Then have them read it aloud in this way: One student reads the first sentence, the next reads the next sentence, and so on. Tell them to be careful to use appropriate pacing and intonation.

Research It

  • Identify Reliable Sources: Point out to students that one clue as to the reliability of a website is the last three letters of the URL. Elicit from them what those letters are for a government site (.gov) and for a school or university site (.edu). Search a common topic such as American independence and help students locate any reliable sites that appear in the list. Tell them that they can narrow down their search results by using or so that only government or school sites appear. Have students compile a class list of reliable sites.

Writing Practice

  • Check students’ work to make sure they have used words and phrases signaling cause and effect in their paragraphs.

Before Lesson

Ask students what they already know about conditions in the United States when it first formed, and write their answers on the board. (Sample answers: There were 13 colonies/states. In general, the Southern states had large plantations with slave labor. The Northern colonies developed industries like manufacturing and fishing. More free people lived in the Northern states than in the Southern ones. Many enslaved people lived in the Southern states.)


Tell students that in less than a century, the United States evolved from 13 colonies along the East Coast to a large, democratic nation spanning a continent. Draw a time line on the board, and divide it into 10-year increments, starting at 1760 and ending at 1860. Have students copy the time line into their notebooks and fill it in as they read the lesson.

Guided Practice

  • The American Revolution
  • Creating the Constitution
  • The Louisiana Purchase
  • The War of 1812
  • Westward Expansion
    • Economic Development

Core Skill

Identify Cause-and-Effect Relationships: Tell students that a cause-and-effect flowchart is another way of presenting the cause-and-effect information. On the board, draw two boxes and an arrow leading from the left box to the right box. Have students copy this organizer in their notebooks.

Have students read the first three paragraphs on page 78. Then have them work in pairs to fill in cause-and-effect organizers, using arrows to indicate causation.

Understand Cause and Effect: Work with students to reread the section Economic Development. Write the key words and phrases in cause-effect relationships on the board. Have students work in pairs to write sentences using these words.


Elaborate and Explain: The concept of compromise was important in the 100 years leading up to the Civil War. After students read Creating the Constitution on page 80, have them explain their understanding of the word compromise. Make sure they realize that compromising means that everyone gets something they wanted, but that everyone also gives up something they wanted. Ask students to give examples of compromises they have made.

Investigate Events: Have students form pairs or small groups. Assign each team one of the decades on the time line the class created at the beginning of this lesson. Have the teams investigate the events of their decade and create a year-by-year time line for it. Then have all the teams compile their time lines in the classroom and study them to learn more about the events that led up to the US Civil War.

Lesson Review