• CCB Science pages 148 - 155



  • Distinguish between invertebrates and vertebrates

  • Recognize the basic characteristics of invertebrates

  • Organize the steps in four-stage and three-stage metamorphosis

Key Concept

  • Animals are made of many cells and can be classified as invertebrates or vertebrates.


Tier 2 adapt
Tier 3 invertebrate

Evidence-Based Reading

  • Reread/Read More Slowly: Read the first two paragraphs of ‘Invertebrates’ with students. Then have students reread on their own, taking notes as they read. Afterward, ask a volunteer to compare invertebrates with vertebrates, using humans as an example of a vertebrate. Invite students to make a two-column chart listing the ways in which humans and invertebrates are similar and the ways in which they are different.

21st Century Skill

  • Communication and Collaboration: Have students read the text and then explain communication and collaboration in their own words. Invite students to give specific examples of collaboration and the effect or result of that collaboration. Ask students to offer opinions on why collaboration might be particularly helpful in the workplace.

Writing Practice

  • After students have finished writing invite them to exchange their instructions with one another. Have each student read their partner’s instructions and then retell them in their own words.

Before Lesson

Determine students’ readiness for learning about invertebrates by asking them to name ten kinds of animals. Then ask students how many of these animals have backbones. Tell students that most animals that come to mind are vertebrates, animals with a spinal cord protected by rigid vertebrae, or backbone. Challenge students to again name ten kinds of animals, but this time, only animals without backbones.


The idea of invertebrates as an animal classification may seem unfamiliar to students at first. Inform them that sponges, coral, and hydras, which all live in water, do not have body parts such as a head and legs. Show them pictures, if possible. Certain invertebrates are part of nearly everybody’s daily life, no matter where they live. Point out that insects-including ants, houseflies, and butterflies-are invertebrates. In fact, 95 percent of all animal species are invertebrates.

Guided Practice

  • Invertebrates
    • Sponges and Cnidarians
    • Worms
      • Role of Worms in the Environment
    • Mollusks
      • Role of Mollusks in the Environment
    • Arthropods
      • Insect Body Structure
      • Insect Life Stages
      • Role of Insects in the Environment

Core Skill

Cite Textual Evidence: Invite students to share their pre-reading ideas about worms. Point out that people often form conclusions before analyzing and evaluating the available evidence. Ask students how reading the passage about the role of worms in the environment influenced their post-reading conclusions. Have students highlight the evidence in the passage that supports their conclusions.

Follow a Multistep Procedure: Ask students to think of a procedural document with numbered steps, such as a recipe or a set of instructions for assembling equipment. Ask students if the next person to use the recipe or the instructions would obtain the same results if the first step were missing. In order to be valid, scientific experiments must be repeatable when performed by any investigator.


Retell a Multistep Process: Assign students the Insect Life Stages passage on pages 152-153 to retell in their own words. This is an opportunity to evaluate students’ comprehension and their ability to articulate information. Correct their syntax as needed.

Evaluate Two or More Sources of Information: Suggest that small groups of students choose an insect species and then work together to learn more about the impact of that species on humans. Have students select a reliable primary source of information, citing evidence for the economic and/ or medical benefits or damages caused by the insect. Have students evaluate two or more secondary or tertiary sources of information on the same or related subject. When they have compiled their data, have them summarize their findings in a group report.

Lesson Review