Materials

  • CCB Science pages 30 - 35

Standards

Objectives

  • Recognize the organs and processes of the nervous and endocrine systems

  • Differentiate between male and female reproductive organs

  • Sequence the events in the development of a fetus from a fertilized egg

  • Identify conclusions and supporting details

Key Concept

  • The nervous system and the endocrine system are responsible for communications within the body. They control many processes in the body, including those of the reproductive system.

Vocabulary

Tier 2 labor
Tier 3 fetus
hormones
menstrual cycle
Test Words sequence

Evidence-Based Reading

  • Word Parts: Write the words cerebrum and cerebellum on the board. Invite students to point out the portion of each word that is shared by both words, and then circle the word part ‘cere’. Explain to students that the word cerebrum comes from the Latin word for brain. The word cerebellum is the Latin diminutive for cerebrum, meaning ‘little brain’. Explain to students that a diminutive is a word form that indicates smallness. Explain to students that it is possible to understand the meaning of many words if they know the meanings of the word parts. Ask students to look up the meaning of the word cerebral in a dictionary.

21st Century Skill

  • Communication and Collaboration: Have students read the text and then write a paragraph describing a successful collaboration. Invite students to share specific examples of their experiences. Ask students to offer opinions on why collaboration might be particularly helpful in the workplace.

Writing Topic

  • During What Period is the embryo very sensitive?

  • During what period is good nutrition especially important?

  • What’s the relationship between the endocrine system and the reproductive system? Include: a restatement of the question, a quotation supporting answer, and an explanation of your answer

Writing Practice

  • Remind students that a claim is a statement or conclusion that is based on evidence and knowledge. Help students identify supporting details in the text.

Before Lesson

Determine students’ readiness for learning about the nervous, endocrine, and reproductive systems by asking them to brainstorm a list of the various ways that messages can be delivered throughout an office building. Some messages might be delivered from person to person (via intercom, telephone, or e-mail), while other messages automatically occur in response to physical conditions in the building. Ask students to think about different kinds of conditions that can be “sensed” by a room in a building. Examples might include monitoring devices that turn off the room lights when no one is present, or thermostats that adjust the room temperature when it becomes too warm or too cold. Help students to distinguish between messages that are very quick (for example, a telephone call) and those that take longer (for example, a thermostat that eventually turns the heat on or off). Explain to students that these messaging systems are similar to the nervous and endocrine systems.

Background

Hormones, produced by the endocrine system, are chemical messengers. They tell various organs what to do and when to do it. This is particularly true of the reproductive system, which relies on hormones to function. The brain, however, is the master organ that sends hormones to their targets. As the main organ of the nervous system, the brain coordinates all of the human body systems. Point out the connection between the brain and other organs as students read the lesson.

Guided Practice

  • The Nervous System
  • Identify Conclusions
  • The Brain
  • The Endocrine System
  • The Reproductive System
  • Growth of the Fetus

Core Skill

Determine Central Ideas: Invite students to work with you to identify the key words and statements that help readers understand the central ideas in this passage about the brain. After students have finished the central idea/supporting details graphic organizer in their notebooks, draw a blank version of this graphic organizer on the board. Encourage student volunteers to fill in their ideas regarding the central idea and the supporting details.

Cite Textual Evidence: Help students look for the words and phrases (such as: as soon as, begin, begins, during, and at the end of) that are cues identifying actions occurring in sequence. Invite students to point out the portions of the passage that state the development periods when the embryo is very sensitive and when good nutrition is especially important.

Extension

Elaborate: Discuss words associated with the reproductive system that students might not know, such as fertilization, nutrition, and contraction. Help students understand some details about each word, such as how each uses the suffix -ion, which refers to the act, result, or state of something.

Draw Conclusions about Hormones: Challenge students to find out more about hormones. Ask them to research how hormones were discovered, and to summarize the names, sites of origin, and functions of some major hormones of the body. Encourage students to share what they learn in a class presentation.

Lesson Review