Materials

  • CCB Science pages 16 - 23

Standards

Objectives

  • Identify main parts of the human skeletal system

  • Classify different types of joints

  • Explain how the skeletal and muscular systems work together for movement

Key Concept

  • The human skeletal and muscular systems work together for support, protection, and movement.

Vocabulary

Tier 2 organization
voluntary
Tier 3 cardiac muscle
cartilage
ligaments
marrow
skeletal muscle
smooth muscle

Evidence-Based Reading

  • Set a Purpose for Reading: Draw a KWL chart on the board. Title the chart: The Skeletal System. Label the columns: What I Know; What I Want to Know; and What I Learned. Explain to students that a KWL chart is one of many effective tools they can use to make meaning of a text. Tell students that you’re going to complete this chart together. Begin by inviting students to share what they know about the skeletal system. Record their responses in the chart. Then ask them to tell you what they want to know about the skeletal system. Again, record their answers in the chart. After reading the text, revisit the chart to complete the last column. If students don’t find the answers to all of their questions, discuss what they could do to find the answers they seek.

21st Century Skill

  • Communication and Innovation: Invite students to discuss the value of precision in writing. Engage them in a discussion of the value of stating what’s most important without cluttering a text with unrelated information. Also ask them how visuals, such as diagrams, can clarify text further. Then read the text together and emphasize points in the text that correspond to points students made during the discussion. Have them work in pairs or in small groups to complete the writing task. Ask students to share their work.

Writing Practice

  • Remind students to think through the physical activity or exercise that they have selected before attempting to write. Help students decide which pattern of organization- order of importance, time order, or cause-and-effect order- is best suited for describing their chosen subject.

Before Lesson

Determine students’ readiness for learning about the skeletal and muscular systems by asking them to imagine themselves running or think of a marathon runner during a race. Encourage students to compare the job of the bones in the runner’s legs to the job of the muscles. Ask how bones and muscles are alike and how they are different. Guide them toward a discussion of the purpose of each system.

Background

Explain to students that bones and muscles work together to provide support and movement. Different kinds of muscles are specialized to do different tasks in different parts of the body. Some muscles are under conscious control, while others are not. Ask students who have broken a bone or damaged a muscle to describe how the injury affected their ability to move.

Guided Practice

  • Set a Purpose for Reading
  • The Skeletal System
  • Joints
  • The Muscular System
  • Importance of Exercise

Core Skill

Understand Text Organization: Read the text with students. Then return to the text to ask students to describe the text’s organization. Ask guiding questions such as: Why did the author begin the text by explaining the purpose of ligaments? Why is the text related to joints that can twist and glide presented before text related to joints that allow only a little or no movement? Does this text’s organization communicate important ideas effectively? Would you make any changes if you were rewriting this text?

Determine Meaning: Read the text with students. Then ask volunteers to explain the relationship between voluntary and involuntary muscles and voluntary and involuntary nervous system responses. Ask students to explain the connection between involuntary responses and survival.

Extension

Explain a Diagram: Gather students into small groups. Encourage them to examine the diagram of the arm on page 20 and use their own words to explain the role of muscle pairs in the raising and lowering of the forearm. Students may want to number the steps they describe, either orally or on paper, as they explain. Construct a Model to Show How a Knee Flexes

Challenge students to research the parts of a knee, including bones, ligaments, cartilage, membranes, and bursa, or fluid-filled sacs. Have students examine how the parts work together to allow movement. Ask them to use the data they gather to build and explain a model of a knee in a flexed position.

Lesson Review