College and Career Readiness Standards

WRITING

To be college and career ready writers, students must take task, purpose, and audience into careful consideration, choosing words, information, structures, and formats deliberately. The Writing Standards cultivate the development of three mutually reinforcing writing capacities: crafting arguments, writing to inform and explain, and fashioning narratives about real or imagined experiences. The overwhelming focus of writing throughout the levels is on arguments and informative/explanatory texts. Writing Standard 9 is a standout because it stresses the importance of the writing-reading connection by requiring students to draw upon and use evidence from literary and informational texts as they write arguments or inform/explain. Because of the centrality of writing to most forms of inquiry, research standards are prominently included in this strand as well.

Writing Strand

Key: The citation at the end of each standard in the following chart identifies the CCSS strand, grade, and number (or standard number and letter, where applicable).

For example, W.5.1a stands for Writing, Grade 5, Standard 1a.

  • W: Writing
  • WHST: Writing for History/Social Studies, Scientific and Technical Subjects

CCR Anchor 1

Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts, using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence.

  • expand_moreLevel A
  • expand_moreLevel B
    • Write opinion pieces on topics or texts, supporting a point of view with reasons.
    • a. Introduce the topic or text they are writing about, state an opinion, and create an organizational structure that lists reasons.
    • b. Provide reasons that support the opinion.
    • c. Use linking words and phrases (e.g., because, therefore, since, for example) to connect opinion and reasons.
    • d. Provide a concluding statement or section.
    • (W.3.1)
  • expand_moreLevel C
    • Write opinion pieces on topics or texts, supporting a point of view with reasons and information.
    • a. Introduce a topic or text clearly, state an opinion, and create an organizational structure in which ideas are logically grouped to support the writer's purpose
    • b. Provide logically ordered reasons that are supported by facts and details.
    • c. Link opinion and reasons using words, phrases, and clauses (e.g., consequently, specifically).
    • d. Provide a concluding statement or section related to the opinion presented.
    • (W.5.1)
  • expand_moreLevel D
    • Write arguments to support claims with clear reasons and relevant evidence.
    • a. Introduce claim(s), acknowledge alternate or opposing claims, and organize the reasons and evidence logically.
    • b. Support claim(s) with logical reasoning and relevant evidence, using accurate, credible sources and demonstrating an understanding of the topic or text.
    • c. Use words, phrases, and clauses to create cohesion and clarify the relationships among claim(s), reasons, and evidence.
    • d. Establish and maintain a formal style.
    • e. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented.
    • (W.7.1)
  • expand_moreLevel E
    • Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts, using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence.
    • a. Introduce precise claim(s), distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and create an organization that establishes clear relationships among the claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence.
    • b. Develop claim(s) and counterclaims fairly, supplying evidence for each while pointing out the strengths and limitations of both in a manner that anticipates the audience's knowledge level and concerns.
    • c. Use words, phrases, and clauses to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships between claim(s) and reasons, between reasons and evidence, and between claim(s) and counterclaims.
    • d. Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline in which they are writing.
    • e. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented.
    • (W/WHST.9-10.1)

CCR Anchor 2

Write informative/explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas and information clearly and accurately through the effective selection, organization, and analysis of content.

  • expand_moreLevel A
    • Write informative/explanatory texts in which they name a topic, supply some facts about the topic, and provide some sense of closure.
    • (W.1.2)
  • expand_moreLevel B
    • Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas and information clearly.
    • a. Introduce a topic and group related information together; include illustrations when useful to aiding comprehension.
    • b. Develop the topic with facts, definitions, and details.
    • c. Use linking words and phrases (e.g., also, another, and, more, but) to connect ideas within categories of information.
    • d. Provide a concluding statement or section.
    • (W.3.2)
  • expand_moreLevel C
    • Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas and information clearly.
    • a. Introduce a topic clearly and group related information in paragraphs and sections; include formatting (e.g., headings), illustrations, and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.
    • b. Develop the topic with facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples related to the topic.
    • c. Link ideas within categories of information using words and phrases (e.g., another, for example, also, because).
    • d. Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic.
    • e. Provide a concluding statement or section related to the information or explanation presented.
    • (W.4.2)
  • expand_moreLevel D
    • Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas, concepts, and information through the selection, organization, and analysis of relevant content. [This includes the narration of historical events, scientific procedures/experiments, or technical processes.]
    • a. Introduce a topic clearly, previewing what is to follow; organize ideas, concepts, and information, using strategies such as definition, classification, comparison/contrast, and cause/effect; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., charts, tables), and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.
    • b. Develop the topic with relevant facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples.
    • c. Use appropriate transitions to create cohesion and clarify the relationships among ideas and concepts.
    • d. Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic.
    • e. Establish and maintain a formal style.
    • f. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the information or explanation presented.
    • (W/WHST.6-8.2)
  • expand_moreLevel E
    • Write informative/explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas, concepts, and information clearly and accurately through the effective selection, organization, and analysis of content. [This includes the narration of historical events,scientific procedures/experiments, or technical processes.]
    • a. Introduce a topic and organize complex ideas, concepts, and information to make important connections and distinctions; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., figures, tables), and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.
    • b. Develop the topic with well-chosen, relevant, and sufficient facts, extended definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples appropriate to the audience's knowledge of the topic.
    • c. Use appropriate and varied transitions to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships among complex ideas and concepts.
    • d. Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to manage the complexity of the topic.
    • e. Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline in which they are writing.
    • f. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the information or explanation presented (e.g., articulating implications or the significance of the topic).
    • (W/WHST.9-10.2)

CCR Anchor 3

Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, well-chosen details and well-structured event sequences.

  • expand_moreLevel A
    • Write narratives in which they recount two or more appropriately sequenced events, include some details regarding what happened, use temporal words to signal event order, and provide some sense of closure.
    • (W.1.3)
  • expand_moreLevel B
    • Write narratives in which they recount a well-elaborated event or short sequence of events, include details to describe actions, thoughts, and feelings, use temporal words to signal event order, and provide a sense of closure.
    • (W.2.3)
  • expand_moreLevel C
    • Students' narrative skills continue to grow in these levels as students work to incorporate narrative elements effectively into their arguments and informative/explanatory texts.
  • expand_moreLevel D
    • Students' narrative skills continue to grow in these levels as students work to incorporate narrative elements effectively into their arguments and informative/explanatory texts.
  • expand_moreLevel E
    • Students' narrative skills continue to grow in these levels as students work to incorporate narrative elements effectively into their arguments and informative/explanatory texts.

CCR Anchor 4

Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.

  • expand_moreLevel A
  • expand_moreLevel B
    • Produce writing in which the development and organization are appropriate to task and purpose.
    • (W.3.4)
  • expand_moreLevel C
    • Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development and organization are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.
    • (W.5.4)
  • expand_moreLevel D
    • Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.
    • (W/WHST.6-8.4)
  • expand_moreLevel E
    • Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.
    • (W/WHST.11-12.4)

CCR Anchor 5

Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach.

  • expand_moreLevel A
    • With guidance and support focus on a topic, respond to questions and suggestions from peers, and add details to strengthen writing as needed.
    • (W.1.5)
  • expand_moreLevel B
    • With guidance and support from peers and others, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, and editing. (Editing for conventions should demonstrate command of Language standards 1–3 at this level.)
    • (W.3.5)
  • expand_moreLevel C
    • With guidance and support from peers and others, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach. (Editing for conventions should demonstrate command of Language standards 1–3 at this level.)
    • (W.5.5)
  • expand_moreLevel D
    • With some guidance and support from peers and others, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on how well purpose and audience have been addressed. (Editing for conventions should demonstrate command of Language standards 1–3 at this level.)
    • (W/WHST.6- 8.5)
  • expand_moreLevel E
    • Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on addressing what is most significant for a specific purpose and audience. (Editing for conventions should demonstrate command of Language standards 1–3 at this level.)
    • (W.11-12.5)

CCR Anchor 6

Use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing and to interact and collaborate with others.

  • expand_moreLevel A
    • With guidance and support, use a variety of digital tools to produce and publish writing, including in collaboration with peers.
    • (W.1.6)
  • expand_moreLevel B
    • With guidance and support, use technology to produce and publish writing (using keyboarding skills) as well as to interact and collaborate with others.
    • (W.3.6)
  • expand_moreLevel C
    • With some guidance and support, use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing as well as to interact and collaborate with others; demonstrate sufficient command of keyboarding skills to type a minimum of one page in a single sitting.
    • (W.4.6)
  • expand_moreLevel D
    • Use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing and link to and cite sources as well as to interact and collaborate with others, including linking to and citing sources.
    • (W.7.6)
  • expand_moreLevel E
    • Use technology, including the Internet, to produce, publish, and update individual or shared writing products, taking advantage of technology's capacity to link to other information and to display information flexibly and dynamically.
    • (W.9-10.6)

CCR Anchor 7

Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects based on focused questions, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation.

  • expand_moreLevel A
    • Participate in shared research and writing projects (e.g., explore a number of 'how-to' books on a given topic and use them to write a sequence of instructions).
    • (W.1.7)
  • expand_moreLevel B
    • Conduct short research projects that build knowledge about a topic.
    • (W.3.7)
  • expand_moreLevel C
    • Conduct short research projects that use several sources to build knowledge through investigation of different aspects of a topic.
    • (W.5.7)
  • expand_moreLevel D
    • Conduct short research projects to answer a question, drawing on several sources and generating additional related, focused questions for further research and investigation.
    • (W.7.7)
  • expand_moreLevel E
    • Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question) or solve a problem; narrow or broaden the inquiry when appropriate; synthesize multiple sources on the subject, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation.
    • (W/WHST.11-12.7)

CCR Anchor 8

Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources, assess the credibility and accuracy of each source, and integrate the information while avoiding plagiarism.

  • expand_moreLevel A
    • With guidance and support, recall information from experiences or gather information from provided sources to answer a question.
    • (W.1.8)
  • expand_moreLevel B
    • Recall information from experiences or gather information from print and digital sources; take brief notes on sources and sort evidence into provided categories.
    • (W.3.8)
  • expand_moreLevel C
    • Recall relevant information from experiences or gather relevant information from print and digital sources; summarize or paraphrase information in notes and finished work, and provide a list of sources.
    • (W.5.8)
  • expand_moreLevel D
    • Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources, using search terms effectively; assess the credibility and accuracy of each source; and quote or paraphrase the data and conclusions of others while avoiding plagiarism and following a standard format for citation.
    • (W/WHST.6-8.8)
  • expand_moreLevel E
    • Gather relevant information from multiple authoritative print and digital sources, using advanced searches effectively; assess the usefulness of each source in answering the research question; integrate information into the text selectively to maintain the flow of ideas, avoiding plagiarism and following a standard format for citation.
    • (W/WHST.9-10.8)

CCR Anchor 9

Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.

  • expand_moreNote
    • This standard does not begin until grade 4 in the Common Core State Standards.
  • expand_moreLevel C
    • Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.
    • a. Apply Reading standards from this level to literature (e.g., 'Refer to details and examples in a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text').
    • b. Apply Reading standards from this level to informational text (e.g., 'Explain how an author uses reasons and evidence to support particular points in a text, identifying which reasons and evidence support which point(s)').
    • (W.5.9)
  • expand_moreLevel D
    • Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.
    • a. Apply Reading standards from this level to literature (e.g., 'Determine a theme or central idea of a text and how it is conveyed through particular details; provide a summary of the text distinct from personal opinions or judgments').
    • b. Apply Reading standards from this level to literary nonfiction (e.g., 'Analyze how a text makes connections among and distinctions between individuals' ideas or events').
    • (W/WHST.6-8.9)
  • expand_moreLevel E
    • Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.
    • a. Apply Reading standards from this level to literature (e.g., 'Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative, connotative, and technical meanings; analyze the cumulative impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone').
    • b. Apply Reading standards from this level to literary nonfiction (e.g., 'Integrate quantitative or technical analysis with qualitative analysis in print or digital text').
    • (W/WHST.11-12.9)