College and Career Readiness Standards

READING

To become college and career ready, students need to grapple with works of exceptional craft and thought whose range extends across genres, cultures, and centuries. By engaging with increasingly complex readings, students gain the ability to evaluate intricate arguments and the capacity to surmount the challenges posed by complex texts. Standards 1 and 10 play a special role since they operate whenever students are reading: Standard 1 outlines the command of evidence required to support any analysis of text (e.g., analyzing structure, ideas, or the meaning of word as defined by Standards 2-9); Standard 10 defines the range and complexity of what students need to read.

Reading Strand

Key: The citation at the end of each standard in the following chart identifies the CCSS strand, grade, and number (or standard number and letter, where applicable).

For example, RI.4.3 stands for Reading, Informational Text, Grade 4, Standard 3.

  • RI: Reading Informational Text
  • RL: Reading Literature
  • RH: Reading Historical/Social Studies Text
  • RST: Reading Scientific and Technical Text

CCR Anchor 1

Read closely to determine what the text says explicitly and to make logical inferences from it; cite specific textual evidence when writing or speaking to support conclusions drawn from the text.

  • expand_moreLevel A
    • Ask and answer such questions as, who, what, where, when, why, and how to demonstrate understanding of key details in a text. (RI/RL.2.1)
  • expand_moreLevel B
    • Refer to details and examples in a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text.(RI/RL.4.1)
  • expand_moreLevel C
    • Quote accurately from a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text. (RI/RL.5.1)
  • expand_moreLevel D
    • Cite several pieces of textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text. (RI/RL.7.1)
    • Application: cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of primary and secondary sources. (RH.6- 8.1)
    • Application: cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts. (RST.6-8.1)
    • Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text. (RI/RL.9-10.1)
  • expand_moreLevel E
    • Application: cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of primary and secondary sources, attending to such features as the date and origin of the information. (RH.9-10.1)
    • Application: cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts, attending to the precise details of explanations or descriptions. (RST.9-10.1)

CCR Anchor 2

Determine central ideas or themes of a text and analyze their development; summarize the key supporting details and ideas.

  • expand_moreLevel A
    • Identify the main topic and retell key details of a text. (RI.1.2)
  • expand_moreLevel B
    • Determine the main idea of a text; recount the key details and explain how they support the main idea. (RI.3.2)
  • expand_moreLevel C
    • Determine the main idea of a text and explain how it is supported by key details; summarize the text. (RI.4.2)
    • Determine a theme of a story, drama, or poem from details in the text; summarize the text. (RL.4.2)
  • expand_moreLevel D
    • Determine a theme or central idea of a text and how it is conveyed through particular details; provide a summary of the text distinct from personal opinions or judgments. (RI/RL.6.2)
    • Application: determine the central ideas or conclusions of a text; provide an accurate summary of the text distinct from prior knowledge or opinions. (RST.6-8.2)
  • expand_moreLevel E
    • Determine a theme or central idea of a text and analyze in detail its development over the course of the text, including how it emerges and is shaped and refined by specific details; provide an objective summary of the text. (RI/RL.9-10.2)
    • Determine the central ideas or conclusions of a text; summarize complex concepts, processes, or information presented in a text by paraphrasing them in simpler but still accurate terms. (RST.11- 12.2)

CCR Anchor 3

Analyze how and why individuals, events, and ideas develop and interact over the course of a text. (Apply this level-specific to texts of appropriate complexity as outlined by Standard 10.)

  • expand_moreLevel A
    • Describe the connection between two individuals, events, ideas, or pieces of information in a text. (RI.1.3)
  • expand_moreLevel B
    • Describe the relationship between a series of historical events, scientific ideas or concepts, or steps in technical procedures in a text, using language that pertains to time, sequence, and cause/effect. (RI.3.3)
  • expand_moreLevel C
    • Explain events, procedures, ideas, or concepts in a historical, scientific, or technical text, including what happened and why, based on specific information in the text. (RI.4.3)
  • expand_moreLevel D
    • Analyze how a text makes connections among and distinctions between individuals, ideas, or events (e.g., through comparisons, analogies, or categories). (RI.8.3)
    • Application: identify key steps in a text's description of a process related to history/social studies (e.g., how a bill becomes law, how interest rates are raised or lowered). (RH.6-8.3)
    • Follow precisely a multistep procedure when carrying out experiments, taking measurements, or performing technical tasks. (RST.6-8.3)
  • expand_moreLevel E
    • Analyze a complex set of ideas or sequence of events and explain how specific individuals, ideas, or events interact and develop over the course of the text. (RI.11-12.3)
    • Analyze in detail a series of events described in a text; determine whether earlier events caused later ones or simply preceded them. (RH.9-10.3)
    • Follow precisely a complex multistep procedure when carrying out experiments, taking measurements, or performing technical tasks, attending to special cases or exceptions defined in the text. (RST.9-10.3)

CCR Anchor 4

Interpret words and phrases as they are used in a text, including determining technical, connotative, and figurative meanings, and analyze how specific word choices shape meaning or tone. (Apply this level-specific to texts of appropriate complexity as outlined by Standard 10.)

  • expand_moreLevel A
    • Ask and answer questions to help determine or clarify the meaning of words and phrases in a text. (RI.1.4)
  • expand_moreLevel B
    • Determine the meaning of general academic and domain specific words and phrases in a text relevant to a topic or subject area. (RI.3.4)
  • expand_moreLevel C
    • Determine the meaning of general academic and domain specific words and phrases in a text relevant to a topic or subject area. (RI.5.4)
    • Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative language such as metaphors and similes. (RL.5.4)
  • expand_moreLevel D
    • Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative, connotative, and technical meanings; analyze the impact of a specific word choice on meaning and tone. (RI/RL.6.4)
  • expand_moreLevel E
    • Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative, connotative, and technical meanings; analyze the cumulative impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone (e.g., how the language of a court opinion differs from that of a newspaper). (RI/RL.9-10.4)
    • Application: determine the meaning of symbols, key terms, and other domain- specific words and phrases as they are used in a specific scientific or technical context. (RST.9-10.4)

CCR Anchor 5

Analyze the structure of texts, including how specific sentences, paragraphs, and larger portions of the text (e.g., a section, chapter, scene, or stanza) relate to each other and the whole.

  • expand_moreLevel A
    • Know and use various text features (e.g., headings, tables of contents, glossaries, electronic menus, icons) to locate key facts or information in a text. (RI.1.5)
  • expand_moreLevel B
    • Know and use various text features (e.g., captions, bold print, subheadings, glossaries, indexes, electronic menus, icons) to locate key facts or information in a text efficiently. (RI.2.5) Use text features and search tools (e.g., key words, sidebars, hyperlinks) to locate information relevant to a given topic efficiently. (RI.3.5)
  • expand_moreLevel C
    • Describe the overall structure (e.g., chronology, comparison, cause/effect, problem/solution) of events, ideas, concepts, or information in a text or part of a text. (RI.4.5) Compare and contrast the overall structure (e.g., chronology, comparison, cause/effect, problem/solution) of events, ideas, concepts, or information in two or more texts. (RI.5.5)
    • Compare and contrast the overall structure (e.g., chronology, comparison, cause/effect, problem/solution) of events, ideas, concepts, or information in two or more texts. (RI.5.5)
  • expand_moreLevel D
    • Analyze how a particular sentence, paragraph, chapter, or section fits into the overall structure of a text and contributes to the development of the ideas. (RI.6.5)
    • Analyze the structure an author uses to organize a text, including how the major sections contribute to the whole and to the development of the ideas. (RI.7.5)
  • expand_moreLevel E
    • Analyze in detail how an author's ideas or claims are developed and refined by particular sentences, paragraphs, or larger portions of a text (e.g., a section or chapter). (RI.9-10.5)
    • Analyze and evaluate the effectiveness of the structure an author uses in his or her exposition or argument, including whether the structure makes points clear, convincing, and engaging. (RI.11-12.5)

CCR Anchor 6

Assess how point of view or purpose shapes the content and style of a text. (Apply this level-specific to texts of appropriate complexity as outlined by Standard 10.)

  • expand_moreLevel A
  • expand_moreLevel B
    • Identify the main purpose of a text, including what the author wants to answer, explain, or describe. (RI.2.6)
    • Distinguish their own point of view from that of the author of a text. (RI.3.6)
  • expand_moreLevel C
    • Analyze multiple accounts of the same event or topic, noting important similarities and differences in the point of view they represent. (RI.5.6)
    • Describe how a narrator's or speaker's point of view influences how events are described. (RL.5.6)
  • expand_moreLevel D
    • Determine an author's point of view or purpose in a text and analyze how the author acknowledges and responds to conflicting evidence or viewpoints. (RI.8.6)
    • Identify aspects of a text that reveal an author's point of view or purpose (e.g., loaded language, inclusion or avoidance of particular facts). (RH.6-8.6)
  • expand_moreLevel E
    • Determine an author's point of view or purpose in a text and analyze how an author uses rhetoric to advance that point of view or purpose. (RI.9-10.6)
    • Application: analyze a particular point of view or cultural experience reflected in a work of literature from outside the United States, drawing on a wide reading of world literature. (RL.9-10.6)
    • Analyze a case in which grasping point of view requires distinguishing what is directly stated in a text from what is really meant (e.g., satire, sarcasm, irony, or understatement). (RL.11-12.6)
    • Compare the point of view of two or more authors for how they treat the same or similar topics, including which details they include and emphasize in their respective accounts. (RH.9-10.6)

CCR Anchor 7

Integrate and evaluate content presented in diverse media and formats, including visually and quantitatively, as well as in words. (Apply this level-specific to texts of appropriate complexity as outlined by Standard 10.)

  • expand_moreLevel A
    • Use the illustrations and details in a text to describe its key ideas (e.g., maps, charts, photographs, political cartoons, etc.). (RI.1.7)
  • expand_moreLevel B
    • Use information gained from illustrations (e.g., maps, photographs) and the words in a text to demonstrate understanding of the text (e.g., where, when, why, and how key events occur). (RI.3.7)
    • Explain how specific aspects of a text's illustrations contribute to what is conveyed by the words in a story (e.g., create mood, emphasize aspects of a character or setting). (RL.3.7)
  • expand_moreLevel C
    • Interpret information presented visually, orally, or quantitatively (e.g., in charts, graphs, diagrams, time lines, animations, or interactive elements on Web pages) and explain how the information contributes to an understanding of the text in which it appears. (RI.4.7)
    • Draw on information from multiple print or digital sources, demonstrating the ability to locate an answer to a question quickly or to solve a problem efficiently. (RI.5.7)
  • expand_moreLevel D
    • Integrate information presented in different media or formats (e.g., in charts, graphs, photographs, videos, or maps) as well as in words to develop a coherent understanding of a topic or issue. (RI.6.7)
    • Integrate quantitative or technical information expressed in words in a text with a version of that information expressed visually (e.g., in a flowchart, diagram, model, graph, or table). (RST.6-8.7)
  • expand_moreLevel E
    • Integrate quantitative or technical analysis (e.g., charts, research data) with qualitative analysis in print or digital text. (RH.9-10.7)
    • Translate quantitative or technical information expressed in words in a text into visual form (e.g., a table or chart) and translate information expressed visually or mathematically (e.g., in an equation) into words. (RST.9-10.7)
    • Integrate and evaluate multiple sources of information presented in different media or formats (e.g., visually, quantitatively) as well as in words in order to address a question or solve a problem. (RI.11-12.7)

CCR Anchor 8

Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, including the validity of the reasoning as well as the relevance and sufficiency of the evidence. (Apply this level-specific to texts of appropriate complexity as outlined by Standard 10.)

  • expand_moreLevel A
    • Identify the reasons an author gives to support points in a text. (RI.1.8)
  • expand_moreLevel B
    • Describe how reasons support specific points the author makes in a text. (RI.2.8)
  • expand_moreLevel C
    • Explain how an author uses reasons and evidence to support particular points in a text, identifying which reasons and evidence support which point(s). (RI.5.8)
  • expand_moreLevel D
    • Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, assessing whether the reasoning is sound and the evidence is relevant and sufficient; recognize when irrelevant evidence is introduced. (RI.8.8)
  • expand_moreLevel E
    • Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, assessing whether the reasoning is valid and the evidence is relevant and sufficient; identify false statements and fallacious reasoning. (RI.9-10.8)

CCR Anchor 9

Analyze how two or more texts address similar themes or topics in order to build knowledge or to compare the approaches the authors take. (Apply this level-specific to texts of appropriate complexity as outlined by Standard 10.)

  • expand_moreLevel A
    • Identify basic similarities in and differences between two texts on the same topic (e.g., in illustrations, descriptions, or procedures). (RI.1.9)
  • expand_moreLevel B
    • Compare and contrast the most important points and key details presented in two texts on the same topic. (RI.3.9)
  • expand_moreLevel C
    • Integrate information from several texts on the same topic in order to write or speak about the subject knowledgeably. (RI.5.9)
  • expand_moreLevel D
    • Analyze a case in which two or more texts provide conflicting information on the same topic and identify where the texts disagree on matters of fact or interpretation. (RI.8.9)
  • expand_moreLevel E
    • Analyze seminal U.S. documents of historical and literary significance (e.g., Washington's Farewell Address, the Gettysburg Address, Roosevelt's Four Freedoms speech, King's 'Letter from Birmingham Jail'), including how they address related themes and concepts. (RI.9-10.9)
    • Analyze seventeenth-, eighteenth-, and nineteenth- century foundational U.S. documents of historical and literary significance (including The Declaration of Independence, the Preamble to the Constitution, the Bill of Rights, and Lincoln's Second Inaugural Address) for their themes, purposes, and rhetorical features. (RI.11-12.9)
    • Compare and contrast findings presented in a text to those from other sources (including their own experiments), noting when the findings support or contradict previous explanations or accounts. (RST.9-10.9)
    • Application: compare and contrast treatments of the same topic in several primary and secondary sources. (RH.9-10.9)